India and Japan have embarked on a remarkable lunar exploration project known as the Chandrayaan-4 mission, officially designated as the Lunar Polar Exploration (LUPEX) project. This ambitious collaboration was initiated in 2019 and is a joint effort between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The Chandrayaan-4 mission is expected to launch in 2026 and holds a laser-sharp focus on exploring the lunar south pole. ISRO is tasked with constructing the moon lander, which will serve as the crucial interface between the rover and the lunar surface. Meanwhile, JAXA will oversee the launch of the mission and provide the lunar rover itself, which will be equipped with state-of-the-art scientific instruments for its lunar exploration tasks. The primary objective of the Chandrayaan-4 mission is to investigate the presence of water near the moon's south pole. The lunar rover is engineered with the capability to autonomously search for water deposits and even drill into the lunar surface to collect samples for in-depth analysis. This quest for water on the Moon is not only scientifically significant but also holds potential for future lunar missions and the establishment of sustainable human presence on the lunar surface. The Chandrayaan-4 mission has its own challenges. Sending a heavy rover to the Moon, maneuvering it on the lunar surface, and collecting essential data will be quite difficult. The lunar environment, with its extreme temperatures and rugged terrain, will pose various challenges for space agencies. Notably, NASA's Neutron Spectrometer will be a part of the mission, enabling it to search for hydrogen beneath the Moon's surface. Additionally, the European Space Agency's Exospheric Mass Spectrometer will contribute to the mission by assessing gas pressure and chemical signatures on the lunar surface.