James Webb telescope reveals Milky Way-like galaxies in young universe | Tech News

James Webb telescope reveals Milky Way-like galaxies in young universe

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) reveal for the first time galaxies with stellar bars, elongated features of stars stretching from the centers of galaxies into their outer disks, at a time when the universe was a mere 25% of its present age.

By:ANI
| Updated on: Jan 07 2023, 09:38 IST
NASA: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter makes astonishing discovery
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope
1/6 The lunar pits found by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter have mild temperatures, drastically different from the extreme conditions on the surface of the Moon. The temperatures in these caves are nearly 17 degree Celsius almost at all times. (NASA/GSFC/Arizona State University)
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope
2/6 NASA Moon recently tweeted, "Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images of pits indicate that the Moon has caves. Could they become astronaut habitats? Scientists have discovered that parts of the pits are always about 63°F (17°C), differing from extreme temperatures at the Moon's surface". (NASA)
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope
3/6 The surface temperatures on the Moon can go from an extremely high 127 degrees Celsius and as low as -173 degrees Celsius. "The pits, and caves to which they may lead, would make thermally stable sites for lunar exploration compared to areas at the Moon's surface, which heat up to 260 F (about 127 C) during the day and cool to minus 280 F (about minus 173 C) at night,” NASA Moon tweeted further. (NASA)
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope
4/6 First discovered in 2009, these lunar pits could potentially be used as location for a first Moon Base. Not only are the temperatures moderate, but these pits could also provide protection against cosmic rays, solar radiation and micrometeorites, according to NASA. (AP)
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope
5/6 LRO Project Scientist Noah Petro of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center said, “Lunar pits are a fascinating feature on the lunar surface. Knowing that they create a stable thermal environment helps us paint a picture of these unique lunar features and the prospect of one day exploring them.” (NASA)
image caption
6/6 The particular pit used to analyze the thermal properties by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter was in an area of the Moon known as the Mare Tranquillitatis. It is 100-meters deep and as wide as a football field. According to scientists, the overhang of the pit is responsible for creating shadows on the Moon and maintaining a temperature of nearly 17 degrees Celsius at all times. (NASA)
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope
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Prior to JWST, images from the Hubble Space Telescope had never detected bars at such young epochs. (U.S. Postal Service)

NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) reveal for the first time galaxies with stellar bars, elongated features of stars stretching from the centres of galaxies into their outer disks, at a time when the universe was a mere 25 per cent of its present age. The finding of so-called barred galaxies, similar to our Milky Way, this early in the universe will require astrophysicists to refine their theories of galaxy evolution.

Prior to JWST, images from the Hubble Space Telescope had never detected bars at such young epochs. In a Hubble image, one galaxy, EGS-23205, is little more than a disk-shaped smudge, but in the corresponding JWST image taken this past summer, it's a beautiful spiral galaxy with a clear stellar bar.

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"I took one look at these data, and I said, 'We are dropping everything else!'" said Shardha Jogee, professor of astronomy at The University of Texas at Austin. "The bars hardly visible in Hubble data just popped out in the JWST image, showing the tremendous power of JWST to see the underlying structure in galaxies," she said, describing data from the Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science Survey (CEERS), led by UT Austin professor, Steven Finkelstein.

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The team identified another barred galaxy, EGS-24268, also from about 11 billion years ago, which makes two barred galaxies existing farther back in time than any previously discovered.

In an article accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, they highlight these two galaxies and show examples of four other barred galaxies from more than 8 billion years ago.

"For this study, we are looking at a new regime where no one had used this kind of data or done this kind of quantitative analysis before," said Yuchen "Kay" Guo, a graduate student who led the analysis, "so everything is new. It's like going into a forest that nobody has ever gone into."

Bars play an important role in galaxy evolution by funneling gas into the central regions, boosting star formation.

"Bars solve the supply chain problem in galaxies," Jogee said. "Just like we need to bring raw material from the harbor to inland factories that make new products, a bar powerfully transports gas into the central region where the gas is rapidly converted into new stars at a rate typically 10 to 100 times faster than in the rest of the galaxy."

Bars also help to grow supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies by channeling the gas part of the way.

The discovery of bars during such early epochs shakes up galaxy evolution scenarios in several ways.

"This discovery of early bars means galaxy evolution models now have a new pathway via bars to accelerate the production of new stars at early epochs," Jogee said.

And the very existence of these early bars challenges theoretical models as they need to get the galaxy physics right in order to predict the correct abundance of bars. The team will be testing different models in their next papers.

JWST can unveil structures in distant galaxies better than Hubble for two reasons: First, its larger mirror gives it more light-gathering ability, allowing it to see farther and with higher resolution. Second, it can see through dust better as it observes at longer infrared wavelengths than Hubble. (ANI)

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First Published Date: 07 Jan, 09:37 IST
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