How will the Euclid Mission solve the mysteries of dark matter, dark energy in the Universe? ESA explains
European Space Agency's (ESA's) Euclid mission aims to create a detailed 3D map of the Universe to unravel dark energy and dark matter, which are one of the biggest unsolved mysteries of the universe.
Do you know about dark matter? According to ESA, in the vast space between galaxies and stars, the seemingly empty space is filled with mysterious matter that we cannot see. This matter has a strong pull, which bends the light coming from stars as it travels to Earth. To understand this phenomenon you can imagine a prism that bends the light through refraction. This bending effect is called gravitational lensing. Scientists have watched this for a long time and realized that there is some mysterious matter and force that cannot be explained by regular things we can see, like cold hydrogen atoms. So, they gave this missing matter a name: "dark matter." It's called "dark" because it seems to only interact with light and normal matter through gravity and it cannot be seen or detected through normal sensors. Scientists have tried really careful experiments, but they haven't found any other ways that dark matter behaves. Even though they've studied it for a long time, we still don't know what dark matter is made of. It's like a puzzle that scientists are trying to solve.
ESA's Euclid Mission
ESA's Euclid mission aims to create a detailed 3D map of the Universe. Scientists will use this map to study dark energy and dark matter, which are mysterious parts of the Universe. The map will have a lot of information and will cover a big portion of the sky. It will also show how things have changed over a very long time - 10 billion years. But handling all the new data from Euclid is hard. To get ready, scientists made a super accurate computer simulation of how the Universe's big structures, like galaxies and clusters, formed and evolved. This simulation is called the Euclid Flagship. It runs on powerful computers and helps researchers understand how things move and behave in space, especially dark matter. They can figure out where galaxies form and predict where they are in the sky.
How Euclid will work?
According to ESA, cosmology has undergone a transition towards Precision science the standard cosmological model has been established and its parameters are being measured with accuracy. Euclid will improve this model's precision and help us unveil the Dark Universe by studying the large-scale distribution of galaxies and Cosmic structures at 1.5 million kilometers from Earth. ESA further explains that we witness the stars in the Milky Way our galaxy observed by Gaia. Euclid will impose highly stringent constraints on the cosmological model that governs our universe. Euclid will generate images in the visible and infrared infrared covering one-third of the sky. we have created the largest and most comprehensive virtual Galaxy catalog to date. we're going to fly through our simulated universe. This is the simulated Dark Matter distribution. we note it is not randomly distributed but rather forms clusters filaments and voids in between galaxies are tracers of the Dark Matter distribution in this visualization. They are shown with fake colors depending on some of their properties note how different types of galaxies trace the underlying Dark Matter distribution there are different types of galaxies they can be red green blue. Euclid's Flagship simulation allows us to visualize the universe from different points of view giving us a better understanding of the evolution of the formation of structure in our universe. over time we have reached the limit of our simulation however this does not imply that these galaxies do not exist. Euclid will explore even further than our simulated universe. we have observed the universe from Earth from space. Euclid's Flagship simulation brings the Dark Universe to life blending observations with our best theoretical model of the Dark Universe.