Webb Space Telescope spots early galaxies hidden from Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA's Webb Space Telescope is finding bright, early galaxies that until now were hidden from view.

    By: PTI
    | Updated on: Nov 18 2022, 19:20 IST
    NASA reveals stunning Jupiter images captured by James Webb Space Telescope
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    1/6 Amazingly, currently, on Jupiter, there are auroras, storms, extreme temperatures and powerful winds stirring things up, according to NASA. The images captured by the James Webb Space Telescope could give scientists a look at the conditions of the gas giant. (NASA)
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    2/6 Planetary astronomer Imke de Pater, professor emerita of the University of California, Berkeley said, “We hadn’t really expected it to be this good, to be honest. It’s really remarkable that we can see details on Jupiter together with its rings, tiny satellites, and even galaxies in one image.” (NASA)
    James Webb Space Telescope
    3/6 The images were captured by the telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) instrument on July 27, which highlighted the planet's unique features. According to NASA, the NIRCam has three specialized infrared filters that showcase details of the planet. (AFP)
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    4/6 The image was created by compositing several images. Auroras are visible near the Northern and Southern poles of the planet. According to NASA, the auroras shine in a filter that is mapped to redder colors, which also highlights light reflected from lower clouds and upper hazes. (NASA)
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    5/6 The Great Red Spot as well as other clouds can be visible in the images as white since it is reflecting the sunlight. The Great Red Spot is a giant vortex which has been swirling around on Jupiter’s surface for a long time. Jupiter’s 2 moons, Amalthea and Adrastea can also be seen “photo-bombing” the planet. (REUTERS)
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    6/6 Thierry Fouchet, a professor at the Paris Observatory, as part of an international collaboration for Webb’s Early Release Science program said, “This one image sums up the science of our Jupiter system program, which studies the dynamics and chemistry of Jupiter itself, its rings, and its satellite system.” (NASA/AFP)
    NASA James Webb Space Telescope
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    This newly-discovered throng of stars by the NASA James Webb Space Telescope would beat the most distant galaxy identified by the Hubble Space Telescope (AFP)

    NASA's Webb Space Telescope is finding bright, early galaxies that until now were hidden from view, including one that may have formed a mere 350 million (35 crore) years after the cosmic-creating Big Bang.

    Astronomers said on Thursday that if the results are verified, this newly-discovered throng of stars would beat the most distant galaxy identified by the Hubble Space Telescope, a record-holder that formed 400 million (40 crore) years after the universe began.

    Launched last December as a successor to Hubble, the Webb telescope is indicating stars may have formed sooner than previously thought -- perhaps within a couple million years of creation.

    Webb's latest discoveries were detailed in the Astrophysical Journal Letters by an international team led by Rohan Naidu of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The article elaborates on two exceptionally bright galaxies, the first thought to have formed 350 million years after the Big Bang and the other 450 million (45 crore) years after.

    Naidu said more observations are needed in the infrared by Webb before claiming a new distance record-holder.

    Although some researchers report having uncovered galaxies even closer to the creation of the universe 13.8 billion (1,380 crore) years ago, those candidates have yet to be verified, scientists stressed at a NASA news conference. Some of those could be later galaxies mimicking earlier ones, they noted.

    "This is a very dynamic time," said Garth Illingworth of the University of California, Santa Cruz, a co-author of the article published on Thursday. "There have been lots of preliminary announcements of even earlier galaxies, and we are still trying to sort out as a community which ones of those are likely to be real."

    Tommaso Treu of the University of California, Los Angeles, a chief scientist for Webb's early release science programme, said the evidence presented so far "is as solid as it gets" for the galaxy believed to have formed 350 million years after the Big Bang.

    If the findings are verified and more early galaxies are out there, Naidu and his team wrote that Webb "will prove highly successful in pushing the cosmic frontier all the way to the brink of the Big Bang".

    "When and how the first galaxies formed remains one of the most intriguing questions," they said in their paper.

    NASA's Jane Rigby, a project scientist with Webb, noted that these galaxies "were hiding just under the limits of what Hubble could do".

    "They were right there waiting for us," she told reporters. "So that is a happy surprise that there are lots of these galaxies to study."

    The USD 10 billion observatory -- the world's largest and most powerful telescope ever sent into space -- is in a solar orbit that is one million miles (1.6 million kilometres) from Earth. Full science operations began over the summer and NASA has since released a series of dazzling snapshots of the universe. 

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    First Published Date: 18 Nov, 19:19 IST
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